Klebsiella pneumoniae

The Pathogen

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common form of gram-negative bacteria found in the mouth, skin and intestines. Infections most often afflict those with compromised immune systems. An opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae is pervasive in hospital settings and difficult to combat. The most significant source of patient infection is contact with feces and contaminated instruments. Even with antimicrobial therapy, it has a high death rate of about 50 percent, and nearly 100 percent for persons with alcoholism and bacteremia. Urinary tract infections are also commonly caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, in which it ranks second only to E. coli in pervasiveness.

The Problem

The first documented history of antimicrobial resistance by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria was in 1996. A hospital in North Carolina reported resistance to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems. Since then, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, (KPC) outbreaks have been reported in Israel, South America, the Caribbean, Scotland, and China. In the U.S., 24 states have reported instances of KPC. New York and New Jersey remain a hot-bed of KPC’s with up to 37 percent of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates being identified as KPCs (source: Drug Benefits Trends).

The options are limited for treating bacteria-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases. The production of carbapen-emase by the bacteria results in the resistance to several antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and aztreonam. Resistance to fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, and aminoglycosides is also commonly observed. In vitro studies consistently show success in combating KPC with polymyxins E and tigecycline antibiotics, however, these treatments hold narrow therapeutic indices and can be toxic to patients.

The NanoLogix Solution - Live-threat microorganism detection in 6 hours

With such strong bacterial resistance to so many antibiotics, swift rapid detection and identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases is critical to protecting patients from exposure and to saving lives. This becomes a challenge when results from conventional Petri cultures can take up to 24 hours. In contrast, NanoLogix technology, cuts the wait time of live-cell Klebsiella pneumoniae microorganism detection and identification to just 6 hours.

This rapid detection and identification of viable Klebsiella pneumoniae alerts epidemiology and infection control staff to the presence of this pathogenic bacteria 40 percent sooner than conventional Petri cultures allow. In turn, this means that precautionary measures to protect at-risk patients can begin as many as 18 hours faster.

In addition to protecting patients and improving public safety, such rapid detection and identification of KPC reduces the economic costs associated with an outbreak. Measures such as active surveillance tests, prevalence surveys in high-risk areas, and contact precautions for infected patients are strongly recommended to put in place upon detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (source: CDC). With more rapid detection, these measures can be greatly reduced or mitigated, saving time and expense.