Salmonella enterica are rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium that are widely recognized as the cause of intestinal disease and illness in both animals and humans. There are approximately 2,000 serotypes of Salmonella that cause disease in humans. The three most common variations of Salmonella enterica are Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Typhi.
Poisoning from Salmonella is one of the most important public health threats in the world. In the U.S. alone, it is suspected to account for almost 30 percent of all food-borne illness-related deaths. According to the CDC, approximately 30,000 cases of salmonellosis are confirmed annually, while around 1 million are suspected to occur. Of these cases, approximately 20,000 result in hospitalization and 378 result in death.
Commonly found in raw meat, chicken, egg shells and contaminated water, the bacteria is contracted through ingestion, contact with animals and/or exposure to contaminated soil, especially in regions with poor sanitation. Once contracted, the bacteria takes on a pathogenic role by secreting proteins that disrupt and disorganize the cytoplasm of the host cells, inhibiting the immune system, and allowing the bacteria to proliferate and move to the liver or spleen where it continues to grow. Salmonella infections can be lethal to the elderly, infants and those with compromised immune systems who do not receive prompt antibiotic treatment.
It is becoming more common for various types of Salmonella to be resistant to such antibiotics as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica are thought to be a result of its innate ability to genetically mutate and adapt to its environment, as well as a consequence of non-medical use of antibiotics pervasive in the livestock industry.
Conventional blood culturing methods for identifying Salmonella are time-consuming and take at least 24 hours to return results. Other, molecular biology-based techniques such as PCR can yield fast results in 24 hours. But, they require special training and expensive, sophisticated equipment that is usually only available in a few of the large diagnostic laboratories.
The NanoLogix Solution - Live-threat microorganism detection in 5 hours
The NanoLogix Salmonella Quick Test kit returns viable microorganism results for Salmonella in approximately 5 hours with the Bionanopore (BNP) technology and in 1 hour with Bionanofilter (BNF). Such rapid detection of live-cell results gives physicians the ability to treat patients promptly with targeted antibiotics. This allows physicians to refrain from using less effective antibiotics that may enable resistance. In addition, rapid detection means the food, beverage and livestock industries can detect and identify Salmonella 4.8 times faster and protect the public from ingesting contaminated batches.